Science in Ancient Greece
The Greek achievements in mathematics and astronomy were one of the finest in antiquity. Explore the cultural roots of ancient science within ancient society whilst investigating its impact upon that society.
* Science in Ancient Greece was based on logical thinking and mathematics. It was also based on technology and everyday life. People studied about the sky, sun, moon, and the planets. The Greeks found that the earth was round.
This tour is a great opportunity to discover and admire at the same time the Greek civilization and Greece’s natural beauty. The combination of these different destinations can offer to the traveler a unique experience combining history and astonishing places. The historic center of Athens is an open-air museum, yet the city’s cultural and social life takes place amid these ancient landmarks, merging past and present. Your visit to Peloponnesus will transfer you even more the ancient years through the ancient theatre of Epidaurus, Olympia and the ancient Greek Technology Museum. Patmos island, known as “Holy Island” and one of the World Heritage Site by Unesco will transfer you to the history through a more religious visual. Samos, the island of the father of mathematics Pythagoras, with the ancient city and temples will give you a great insight of the ancient life there.
Points of Interest
Museum of the Ancient Greek Technology
Renowned and without doubt unrivalled to this day, is the contribution of the ancient Greeks to the field of Philosophy and the Fine Arts. Likewise familiar is their contribution to the field of Science. However, the technology of the ancient Greeks is relatively unknown, just as is their incredible performance in this field.
The present exhibition of ancient Greek technology includes approximately 300 operating models of ancient Greek inventions. The ancient Greek technological marvel (from the robot – servant of Philon to the cinema of Heron and from the automatic clock of Ktesibios to the analog computer of Antikythera) covers the period from 2000 BC until the end of the ancient Greek world. All were constructed by Kostas Kotsanas, through 22 years of extensive research and study.
It is the most credible (since it is based solely on the thorough study of the ancient Greek, Latin and Arabic literature, vase painting information and minimal relevant archeological finds) and the most comprehensive exhibition of its kind worldwide. All the exhibits and their supporting material have been created by the creator of the museums without any subsidy from any public or private institution and are permanently housed at the homonymous Museum of Ancient Greek Technology and the Museum of Ancient Greek Musical Instruments and Toys & Games operating in Katakolo under the auspices of the Municipality of Pyrgos, Greece.
Epidaurus was a small city in ancient Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula at the Saronic Gulf. The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus is regarded as the best preserved ancient theatre in Greece in terms of its perfect acoustics and fine structure. The most famous attraction in Epidaurus is the ancient Theatre. It is famous for its architecture, acoustics and symmetry. Mostly known sights are the Asklepieion of Epidaurus and the archaeological site. The Asklepieion of Epidaurus as an important healing center, considered the cradle of medicinal arts and the mother sanctuary of the plethora of other Asklepieia that were built throughout the Hellenic world. Near the ancient Theater which is located next to Lygourio, lie the Ancient Epidaurus and its harbor. The harbor, the green that surrounds it and the view towards Agistri constitute attractions by themselves. Other attractions of the area are the small Theater of Ancient Epidaurus, the Mycenaean Acropolis of Kazarma, the Sunken City, the Castle of New Epidaurus and scattered churches and monasteries.
The famous theatre, which seats up to 14.000 people, actually a later “add-on”, is still used today for performances of ancient dramas. The Theatre of Epidaurus is the best preserved ancient theatre in the world with perfect acoustics. The theatre was overgrown and buried under a mound of earth looking like just a hollow in the side of a hill until it was discovered in the 1900 century.
In western Peloponnese, in the beautiful valley of the Alpheios river, lies the most celebrated sanctuary of ancient Greece. Dedicated to Zeus, the father of the gods, it sprawls over the southwest foot of Mount Kronios, at the confluence of the Alpheios and the Kladeos rivers, in a lush, green landscape. Although secluded near the west coast of the Peloponnese, Olympia became the most important religious and athletic centre in Greece. Its fame rests upon the Olympic Games, the greatest national festival and a highly prestigious one world-wide, which was held every four years to honour Zeus.
The visitor can walk though the impressive ruins of the area where athletes trained and run in the ancient stadium; just as the ancient Olympians did after their victory 3000 years ago. They can also visit the museum and get the chance to see some unbelievable sculptures such as the sculpted decoration of the temple of Zeus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the famous Hermis of Praxiteles and the statue of Nike of Paionios.
Designated as “Holy Island” by the Greek Parliament in 1981 as well as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999, Patmos had been used as a place of exile by the Romans on account of its steep morphology. That’s how St. John found safe refuge here in the 1st century A.D., exiled by the Emperor Domitian.
According to the prevailing theory, the Book of Revelation was written in 95 A.D. in the Holy Cave of the Apolacypse, where St. John heard the voice of God talking to him. Turned into a place of worship by the monk Christodoulos Latrinós in the 11th century the cave –on whose walls we can trace the fingerprints of St. John’s himself–, is still open to the devout Christians.
The Holy Monastery of the Apocalypse was built as a castle in 1088 by the monk Christodoulos Latrinós. Cultural and religious centre since its first day of use, it took another five centuries for it to spread its activities all around the island – and not just the town of Hóra (Chora), where it is situated.
Buildings of different ages form the Monastery, comprising 10 chapels and 99 cells as well as a Library of 890 handwritten codes and 13,000 documents about the history of the site.
The Eupalinos Tunnel is considered as one of the most important engineering achievements of antiquity. It’s a 1036m long tunnel in Samos Island, Greece, built in the 6th century BC to serve as an aqueduct and therefore supply fresh water from Agiades spring the city of Samos (Pythagoreion). The Eupalinos Tunnel is an engineering feat of outstanding importance since it was the first time in the history of mankind that anyone had ventured to undertake a project of that magnitude with no similar reference. The Engineer Eupalinos built a tunnel under a mountain by starting to dig, simultaneously, from two portals diametrically opposite. All applied measurements using maths and geometry are of outstanding precision. Moreover, all evidence indicate that Eupalinos was ready to apply a solution for every difficulty that arose, due to unfavorable ground conditions that were partly encountered, as well as that he had the courage to bring his highly difficult project to a successful end. Eupalinos worked as a modern engineer 2500 year ago.
The Eupalinos Tunnel was used for over 1100 years (up to the 7th century AD) until it was abandoned in the Byzantine period, during which it was used for long periods by the Samians as a refuge. The tunnel offered unique protection for the people against pirate invasions. Fortressing walls were built inside the tunnel just after its south entrance portal.
On your return continue north towards the national road and follow the river embankment along the channel called “Danio”. If you need to open the gates put there by the stock breeders, make sure you close them after you. The fresh water in the channel attracts glossy ibises, herons, spoonbills, mallards and the rare ferruginous duck. There`s also a good chance of spotting coypu here. This invasive large “river rat” breeds here, though it is a native of South America.
At a Glance
Departure TimeA new accommodation (city) tax will be imposed as of January 01, 2018. This tax will vary from EURO 1,00 to EURO 5,00 per room, per overnight (depending on hotel's category) and will be paid DIRECTLY by the guests to each hotel, on check out time.
Include3* AccommodationPersonal GuideAirport TransfersBreakfast
Not Included4* AccommodationDeparture TaxesEntry Fees
Upon arrival at the airport, you will be welcomed by the guests from our representative. Then you will be transferred to your hotel and check in. Overnight in Athens.
The morning will start with a city tour of Athens. You will visit all the major points of interest that the city center has to offer. After that you are going to visit the famous and astonishing hill of Acropolis. Then you will go by foot on the new Acropolis Museum and the National Archaeological Museum where you will have the chance to see finds from the shipwreck at Antikythera, including the famous device, a scientific instrument of the 1st century B.C. used for astronomical and calendrical calculations. Transfer to the hotel for check in and some rest. Free afternoon at leisure. Overnight in Athens.
After breakfast, tour will depart for the Corinth Canal with a short stop over there. Then drive to Epidaurus and visit the ancient theatre, world famous for its outstanding acoustics. Through the plain of Argos you will arrive to Mycenae. The archaeological site and the Tomb of Agamemnon are going to be visited. Tour will stop in the village of Mycenae for free time. In the afternoon you are going to depart for Olympia, the birth place of the Olympic games. Arrive in Olympia, check in at hotel and overnight.
After breakfast, you will visit Katakolon where you will have the opportunity to visit the Kotsanas Museum, a museum dedicated to ancient Greek technology. You are going to have lunch in the area and then be transferred back to Athens. Overnight in Athens.
After breakfastyou will be transferred to the Piraeus port in order to embark the ferry to Patmos Island. Transfer to the hotel upon arrival at the island. You will have the rest of the day free at your disposal. Overnight in Patmos.
After breakfast, your day will start by visiting the Apocalypses cave and the Agios Ioannis Monastery. Free afternoon at leisure and overnight in Patmos.
After breakfast, you will visit the Kambos village, in order to participate in yoga lessons inspired by the mystic energy of the island. Overnight in Patmos.
After breakfast, you will be transferred to the Patmos port in order to embark the ferry to Samos Island. You will be transferred to the hotel upon arrival at the island and then have the rest of the day free at your disposal. Overnight in Samos.
Breakfast at the hotel and today you are going to visit the Pythagoreion with the temple of Hera and the Archaeological museum. Free afternoon at leisure and overnight in Samos.
After breakfast, you will visit the Eupalinos Tunnel, built on the ruins of the ancient city of Samos, home to what many call the eighth wonder of antiquity – and engineers agree. Following, you will visit the Mytilinioi Palaeontology Museum. Overnight in Samos.
Breakfast and transfer to airport.
Athens, Katakolo, Patmos & Samos